Content, Philosophy, and Goals
,
Overview
,
Prerequisites
,
Design criteria and implementation
,
Advantages of Java over proprietary Statistics Packages
,
Suggestions for evaluating the materials
,
About the Author
,
Acknowledgments
.
How to use these online materials
Rules of reasoning
,
arguments
,
validity and soundness
,
some valid rules of reasoning
,
formal fallacies
,
common formal fallacies
,
informal fallacies
,
fallacies of relevance and fallacies of evidence
,
fallacies of relevance
,
common fallacies of relevance
,
fallacies of evidence
,
common fallacies of evidence
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Introduction
.
Data
:
types of variables
,
sample data sets
,
frequency tables
,
histograms
,
skewness and modes
,
percentiles and quartiles
,
estimating percentiles from histograms
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Measures of location: mean, median and mode
;
spread and variability
,
importance of variability
,
measures of spread: range, IQR and SD
,
affine transformations
,
Markov's inequality and Chebychev's inequality for lists
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Multivariate data
,
scatterplots
,
describing scatterplots
:
linearity and nonlinearity
,
homoscedasticity and heteroscedasticity
,
outliers
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Association
,
post hoc ergo propter hoc
,
summary
,
key terms
.
The correlation coefficient
, the effect of
nonlinear association
,
homoscedasticity and heteroscedasticity
and
outliers
on the correlation coefficient,
summary
,
key terms
.
computing the correlation coefficient
,
standard units
,
computing
r
,
ecological correlation
,
summary
,
key terms
.
SD line
,
graph of averages
,
regression line
,
estimating using the regression line
,
the equation of the regression line
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Residuals and residual plots
,
reading residual plots
,
summary
,
key terms
.
The RMS error of regression
,
the distribution in a vertical slice through a scatterplot
,
the regression effect
,
the regression fallacy
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Counting can be hard
,
The Fundamental Rule of Counting
,
permutations
,
combinations
,
card hands
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Theories of Probability
,
Random events
,
Equally Likely Outcomes
,
Frequency Theory
,
Subjective Theory
,
shortcomings of the theories
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Naive set theory
,
connecting probability to set theory
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Sets and categories
,
existential and universal quantifiers
,
categorical syllogisms
,
testing syllogisms
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Logical operations
,
evaluating compound propositions
,
logical arguments as compound propositions
,
valid arguments versus sound arguments
,
logic and sets
,
summary
,
key terms
.
The axioms of probability
,
conditioning
, the
multiplication rule
,
Bayes' rule
,
independence
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Background
,
assumptions and arguments
,
assumptions and rules of the game
,
argument 1 (don't switch—naive)
,
argument 2 (don't switch—conditional probability)
,
argument 3 (switch—heuristic)
,
argument 4 (switch—conditional probability)
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Introduction
,
a box model for the Let's Make a Deal problem
,
the binomial probability distribution
,
dependence of the binomial on
n
and
p
,
when the binomial does not apply
,
using the binomial distribution
,
continuation of the Let's Make a Deal problem
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Random variables
,
sampling from 0-1 boxes
,
geometric distribution
, the
negative binomial distribution
, sampling without replacement, the
hypergeometric distribution
,
calculating binomial, geometric, hypergeometric, and negative binomial probabilities
,
discrete distributions
,
case study: trade secret litigation
,
summary
,
key terms
.
The Law of Large Numbers
,
implications of the law of large numbers
,
expected value of a random variable
,
expected value of the sample sum
,
expected value of binomial hypergeometric distributions
,
properties of the expected value
,
expected value of the sample mean and sample percentage
,
gambling and fair bets
,
expected values of some common distributions
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Expected value of a transformation of a random variable
,
standard error of random variables
,
the standard error transformations of a random variable
,
independent random variables
,
standard errors of some common random variables
,
the SE of a single draw from a box of numbered tickets
,
SE of the sample sum of
n
random draws with replacement from a Box of Tickets
,
the SE of the sample mean of
n
random draws from a box of numbered tickets
,
the square-root law
,
the law of averages
, the standard error of
the binomial
,
geometric and negative binomial
distributions,
SE of the sample sum and mean of a simple random sample
,
the SE of the hypergeometric distribution
, the
finite population correction
,
summary
,
key terms
.
The normal approximation
,
standard units for random variables
,
the normal curve
,
the normal approximation to probability histograms
,
the continuity correction
,
the normal approximation to the hypergeometric distribution
,
Markov's and Chebychev's inequalities for random variables
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Parameters and statistics
,
why sample?
,
sample surveys
,
The Hite Report
,
bias in surveys
,
Sampling designs
:
cluster sampling
,
stratified sampling
,
multistage sampling
,
hybrid designs
,
ways of drawing samples
,
convenience samples
,
quota samples
,
systematic samples
,
probability samples
,
simple random samples
,
systematic random samples
,
Sampling from hypothetical populations
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Quantifying the error of estimators
:
bias
,
standard error
, and
mean squared error
,
estimating means and percentages
,
a conservative estimate of the SE of the sample percentage
,
the Bootstrap estimate of the SD of a list of zeros and ones
,
the sample standard deviation and the sample variance
,
caveats
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Confidence intervals
,
conservative confidence intervals for percentages
,
conservative confidence intervals for the mean of bounded populations
,
approximate confidence intervals for percentages
,
approximate confidence intervals for the population mean
,
exact confidence intervals for percentages
,
confidence intervals for the median and percentiles
,
summary
.
Hypothesis testing
,
Examples of hypothesis testing problems
,
significance level and power
,
test statistics and
P
-values
,
hypotheses about parameters; one-sided and two-sided alternatives
,
case study: employment discrimination
,
caveats
,
the meaning of rejection
,
statistical significance and practical importance
,
interpreting
P
-values
,
multiplicity and data mining
,
garbage in, garbage out
,
summary
.
The Method of Comparison
,
confounding
,
historical controls
,
longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons
,
Simpson's Paradox
,
experiments and observational studies
,
assessing online instructions
,
the Placebo Effect
,
John Snow's study of the mode of communication of cholera
,
The Kassel Dowsing Experiment
,
summary
.
Fisher's Exact Test for an effect--dependent samples
,
the normal approximation to Fisher's Exact Test
,
testing equality of two percentages using independent samples
,
Fisher's Exact Test using independent samples
,
the
Z
test for the equality of two percentages using independent Samples
,
the normal approximation to Fisher's exact test and the
z
Test
,
summary
,
key terms
.
z Tests
,
P
values for
z
tests
,
examples of
z
tests
,
z
test for a population percentage
,
the
z
test for a population mean
,
z
-test for a difference of population means
(
paired samples
,
independent samples
),
t
tests
,
nearly normally distributed populations
,
Student's
t
-curve
,
t
test for the mean of a nearly normal population
,
hypothesis tests and confidence intervals
,
confidence intervals using Student's
t
curve
,
summary
,
key terms
The multinomial distribution
,
the
chi-square
statistic
,
the sampling distribution of the chi-square statistic
and the
chi-square curve
,
the chi-square test of goodness of fit
,
summary
,
key terms
.
Bibliography
.
Glossary
.